September 2007
Volume 11, Number 2

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The Effects of Implicit and Explicit Instruction on Simple and Complex Grammatical Structures for Adult English Language Learners

Karen L. Ziemer Andrews
Alliant International University


This empirical study of the effects of grammar instruction was conducted at a college-prep, private school on 70 participants in grades seven through twelve. The dependent variable was the number of correct items over the forms from a pre-test, post-test, and delayed-post-test. Chi-square was used to find if there was a significant difference between the two treatments at the .05 level of confidence. The results supported the premise that teaching does make a significant difference in learning, that explicit instruction is significantly better than implicit for the complex rule, that both methods are equally effective for the simple rule, and that structures do not have to match proficiency levels or be sequenced by complexity for significant learning to take place.

Keywords: EFL, ESL, grammar, syntax, pedagogy, methodology

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